Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). A significant number of patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis have reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Contemporary treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) includes multiple pharmacotherapeutic strategies such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors to reduce mortality and slow disease progression. However, because of concerns about hyperkalemia, aldosterone receptor antagonists are not commonly used in patients with HFrEF and ESRD undergoing dialysis. This blog summarizes the current evidence for efficacy and safety of aldosterone receptor antagonists in patients with concomitant HFrEF and ESRD requiring dialysis.
Residency preceptors must be able to demonstrate the ability to use the four preceptor roles. Applying these roles allows for due diligence when training pharmacy students and residents. In this two part blog post, we will review these roles (instruct, model, coach and facilitate) and discuss reasons for and examples of how to apply these.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) often occur concomitantly. Despite this, optimal treatment strategies remain unclear. Current rate and rhythm control pharmacotherapy options present challenges when used in patients with HFrEF. In this blog, we cover 3 clinical pearls to consider for acute management of AF in patients with HFrEF.