Questions regarding the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in heart failure have been raised since the publications of EMPA-REG OUTCOME in 2015. The recent results of the Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on the Incidence of Worsening Heart Failure or Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) shed some light on the potential for these medications in HFrEF. In this blog, we discuss the implications of DAPA-HF and the role of SGLT2i for heart failure, including perspectives from a cardiologist.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). A significant number of patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis have reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Contemporary treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) includes multiple pharmacotherapeutic strategies such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors to reduce mortality and slow disease progression. However, because of concerns about hyperkalemia, aldosterone receptor antagonists are not commonly used in patients with HFrEF and ESRD undergoing dialysis. This blog summarizes the current evidence for efficacy and safety of aldosterone receptor antagonists in patients with concomitant HFrEF and ESRD requiring dialysis.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) often occur concomitantly. Despite this, optimal treatment strategies remain unclear. Current rate and rhythm control pharmacotherapy options present challenges when used in patients with HFrEF. In this blog, we cover 3 clinical pearls to consider for acute management of AF in patients with HFrEF.
Teaser: Does the formulation of oral nitrate therapy matter when used for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)? Should fixed-dose hydralazine (HYD)/isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (BiDil®) be used in those with HFrEF or can the medications be prescribed separately? In clinical practice the individual components HYD and ISDN are often prescribed as a result of cost concerns with the brand name, fixed-dose combination product. Additionally, clinicians often substitute extended-release isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) for ISDN given its less frequent administration schedule. In this post we will discuss whether these formulations can be used interchangeably in those with HFrEF.
Although beta blockers are considered a fundamental therapy for patients with heart failure (HF), questions remain on how to manage them these medications in patients presenting with decompensation requiring intravenous inotropic therapy. In this post, we will provide some insights on managing the chronic beta blockade and intravenous inotropic therapy when used concomitantly in a decompensated HF patient.
Although admitted patients with heart failure often have acute medical issues (e.g. acute kidney injury, acute decompensation) that may preclude them from certain therapies, many are appropriate candidates for guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) before they leave the hospital. This blog discusses the importance of initiating GDMT prior to discharge, whenever possible.
Despite being the mainstay of therapy, questions remain as to how to properly use loop diuretics in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). In this post, we’ll cover four of the most common mistakes with using loop diuretics in this population.
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One of the questions that remained unanswered after the PARADIGM-HF trial was whether the angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan could be safely initiated in patients with acute decompensated heart failure who had been previously stabilized on an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker. In this blog, Dr. Reed discusses the implications of the PIONEER-HF and TRANSITION studies, and provides a practical strategy for transitioning patients to sacubitril/valsartan.
Angioedema is a potentially life-threatening side effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) therapy. Once this side effect occurs, patients should not be reinitiated on an ACEi; an alternative agent is warranted. This blog will discuss the mechanism and risk factors for this adverse effect and will provide recommendations for selecting an alternative agent.